Should I Circumcise? The Pros and Cons of Infant Circumcision




New to the subject of infant circumcision and the benefits of the prepuce (foreskin)? The following are resources many families have found useful when looking at the subject for the first time. They are meant to be a starting point into deeper investigation and further research that is widely available today. If you only have a short period of time to spend on this topic, a blue star marks films with physicians' statements who are in practice today, as well as medical professionals' materials. If you're interested in joining in conversation with others, the following groups are safe spaces to bring up related questions: Saving Our Sons CommunityIntact: Healthy, Happy, WholeRaising BoysIt's a Boy!Peaceful Intact EducationPeaceful Parenting Community

★ Functions of the Foreskin: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/09/functions-of-foreskin-purposes-of.html

★ Foreskin and its 16+ Functions (not 'just skin'): http://www.SavingSons.org/2015/09/foreskin-and-its-16-functions-not-just.html

★ Intact vs. Circumcised: A Significant Difference in the Adult Penis: http://www.DrMomma.org/2011/08/intact-or-circumcised-significant.html

Why did circumcision start as we now know it in the U.S.? Hear from some original doctors on the matter:
A Brief History in Physicians' Own Wordshttp://www.DrMomma.org/2007/05/circumcision-brief-history-in.html
Circumcision to Reduce Men's Pleasurehttp://www.SavingSons.org/2012/07/circumcision-to-reduce-mens-sexual.html

★ Are there medical benefits to circumcision? Read national medical statements from around the world: http://www.DrMomma.org/2014/08/medical-organization-position.html

Physicians' thoughts within the medical field todayFB.com/IntactCare
• Notably, Dr. Morton Frisch: Time for U.S. Parents to Reconsider the Acceptability of Infant Male Circumcisionhttps://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/time-for-us-parents-to-reconsider-the-acceptability-of-infant-male-circumcision_b_7031972.html
• Peer reviewed research (studies published in medical journals): http://www.DrMomma.org/2007/01/circumcision-studies.html

Well researched BOOKS written on the subject:
Marked in Your Fleshhttps://amzn.to/2ONyB34
Circumcision: A Historyhttps://amzn.to/2vkxwrk
What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcisionhttps://amzn.to/2O8R5d5
Doctors Re-examine Circumcisionhttps://amzn.to/2OdfSwN
Circumcision, The Hidden Traumahttps://amzn.to/2OcqWKt
Circumcision Exposedhttps://amzn.to/2viVpQ7
The Foreskin and Why You Should Keep Ithttps://amzn.to/2M4qiBl
Circumcision: A Jewish Perspectivehttps://amzn.to/2AJju7C
Celebrating Brit Shalomhttps://amzn.to/2nc0eWN

 VIDEO: Dr. Ryan McAllister Georgetown University video lecture, Elephant in the Hospital (also included on DVD in the Saving Our Sons Info Pack): http://www.library.georgetown.edu/gelardin/showcase/entries/circumcision-elephant-hospital

 VIDEO: Dr. Christopher Guest, Circumcision: The Whole Story: http://youtu.be/SeAXantm4tE

★ VIDEO: American Circumcision documentary on Netflix: https://www.netflix.com/title/81000861

VIDEO: Whose Body, Whose Rights? Award-winning circumcision documentary: http://www.SavingSons.org/2017/01/whose-body-whose-rights-circumcision.html

VIDEO: The Real Reason You're Circumcised from College Humor: Collegehumor.com/video/6966989/the-real-reason-youre-circumcised

VIDEO: Penn & Teller: Bullsh*t Circumcision Episode: http://www.SavingSons.org/2013/03/happy-birthday-penn-jillette.html

★ Intact Care: Drmomma.org/2009/06/how-to-care-for-intact-penis-protect.html
Circumcision Care: Nocirc.org/publish/pamphlet5.html

The two most common forms of circumcision in North American today: 
• Gomco: http://www.Savingsons.org/2011/01/neonatal-circumcision-video-for.html
• Plastibell: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/08/plastibell-infant-circumcision.html [Note that Plastibell is the type of circumcision most often mistakenly referred to as a 'no-cutting' or 'no-blood' method.]

Outcome Statistics (Circumcised vs. Intact): http://www.DrMomma.org/2010/01/cut-vs-intact-outcome-statistics.html

Men speakhttp://www.SavingSons.org/2017/04/men-speak.html | MenMatterToo.org/men
• Facebook conversations by men: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.487363627949430.115346.166998263319303

Over 250,000 men are restoring some of what was lost to circumcision. It improves sexual pleasure in a wide variety of ways. Google Foreskin Restoration and check out any of these resources: http://www.Savingsons.org/2009/10/foreskin-restoration.html

Psychology Today article collection: http://Savingsons.org/2011/10/psychology-today-circumcision-series.html

For those with older sons who were circumcised: 
Keeping Future Sons Intact Public Page: FB.com/FutureSons 
Discussion Group: FB.com/groups/FutureSons
Articles written by those with circumcised sons: http://www.DrMomma.org/2010/05/i-circumcised-my-son-healing-from.html 

What does this have to do with WOMEN? 
• Sex As Nature Intended It: SexAsNatureIntendedIt.com
  Book by same title: https://amzn.to/2AEyUde
• How Male Circumcision Impacts Your Love Life: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/10/how-male-circumcision-impacts-your-love.html
• Women's Health and Male Circumcision Resource List: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/07/how-male-circumcision-impacts-women.html

Faith Considerations on Circumcision
• Resources by/for Jews, Christians, and Muslims: http://www.DrMomma.org/2011/01/faith-considerations-on-circumcision.html
• For Jews - Intact Jewish Network
• For Muslims - Intact Muslim Network 

HIV/AIDS and the African Trials: http://www.DrMomma.org/2014/01/hiv-aids-circumcision-resources.html

50 Reasons to Leave it Alone: http://www.DrMomma.org/2010/11/50-reasons-to-leave-it-alone.html 

If you'd like to join a community of parents (many with both circumcised and intact sons) to ask questions while making your decision, you are welcome to the Intact: Healthy, Happy, Whole group. Everyone is welcome to this safe-space, non-venting community group. The Saving Our Sons Community Group is for those who are already pro-intact advocates, and families raising intact sons.


For Sharing Educational Items

★ The Info Pack (includes a DVD with several videos and full length articles); the smaller Expecting Pack; Postcards for a Friend; or have a professional exchange online correspondence via email or Facebook message by writing to SavingSons(at)gmail.com

Informational items (cards, stickers, bracelets, etc.): Etsy.com/shop/SavingOurSons

Questions? 
Please feel free to email SavingSons(at)gmail.com any time. Several clinicians volunteer time to field questions, and if we're not able to answer, we'll seek out a place to go for further information.

If you find these resources to be of use, please help support Saving Our Sons and work we do. We continue solely by volunteers' time and generosity. See current needs at: http://www.SavingSons.org/p/sponsor-son-waiting-list.html or give directly: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=VQSSUQFGLFZXQ



The Penis: Sex Education 101 with Marilyn Milos










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Jewish Father, Nev Schulman, of MTV's Catfish Keeping Son Intact



Jewish father and MTV celeb, Nev Schulman of "Catfish: The TV Show" shares why his son, born last week, is going to remain intact on Failing Upwards:

Full Podcast at: https://player.fm/series/failing-upwards-1543907/snippin-dicks-with-mtvs-nev-schulman Minute 14:50-17:05. Note: Adult Language and content that may not be appropriate for all audiences.

Transcript: 
J&L = podcast hosts Jimmy and Larry 

14:50 
Nev: Does anyone still have their thin layer of penis?
J&L: You mean Foreskin.

15:06 
Nev: I'm about to have a son any day. My wife could be going into labor right now...

15:40 
J&L: So here's the question: are you going to cut your son's d*ck?
Nev: That's the thing - I just assumed yes, because I thought that's what everyone does. There's now a trend --
J&L: An anti-circumcision movement
Nev: YES. A very real thing. People are saying there's no real reason for it. It's genital mutilation. It's traumatic. However, I have heard that circumcision somewhat, or maybe greatly, decreases sensitivity. Which to me would be a great reason for circumcision, because I cannot imagine being more sensitive down there than I already am.
J&L: My cut d*ck feels pretty great. As a man whose had sex before, it feels pretty great...

16:20
Nev: Can you imagine if it felt even better, how hard it would be to not orgasm. But I'm basically letting my wife make the call and it looks like we're going to go UNcircumcised [intact]
J&L: Interesting. Bucking the trend. Well, that IS the trend...
Nev: Right.
J&L: So is your son going to see his father's penis... "What's wrong with my wee-wee, Papa?" That's obviously going to be his first d*ck reference - is your penis. And he's going to look at his and think that he's a f*cking freak.
Nev: I'll have to come up with something. Well, this is just what happened - that skin shriveled up, I got old...
J&L: "I'm the freak!"
Nev: Yeah...

30:35
Nev: I recently watched BirdBox. Have you guys watched that?
J&L: I only like the memes.
Nev: Right. Well, I only watched it because I'm in it for a second. My wife and I are in a painting... so Sandra Bullock's character is an artist. At the beginning of the movie she is working on a big painting, with a bunch of people in it, and me and my wife are in the painting.
J&L: Is that something you'd like to hang...
Nev: No, no...

• MenMatterToo.org/men
• Restoration Resources
• Saving Our Sons Community
• Functions of the Foreskin 
• Foreskin and its 16+ Functions (not 'just skin')
• Intact vs. Circumcised: A Significant Difference in the Adult Penis

End note: Being intact and having all one was meant to have through adulthood does increase pleasure, however, it also increases control and ability to self-regulate sexual experience and pleasure for both a man himself, and his partner. It does not lead to premature ejaculation or inability to control oneself - just the opposite. And later in life, post-40s/50s, having the prepuce intact and all that a man is meant to 'bring to the table' allows him to avoid the ubiquitous erectile dysfunctions seen in the United States.












Genital Integrity Awareness Week Gifts Doubled Through New Years


Thanks to a former Genital Integrity Awareness Week supporter who has come forward to match donations, your gift toward GIAW OR Saving Our Sons these last 3 days in December will be doubled!

Help us make a BIG impact on our nation as we go forward in 2019!

To give: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=4ZJ93DVEYGV2S&source=url

By mail:
GIAW / Saving Our Sons
PO Box 1302
Virginia Beach, VA 23451
(email to let us know it's on the way to be doubled)

If you're able to make it to D.C., mark March 28-April 3 on your calendar and join us at the U.S. Capitol West Lawn each day as we share the intact message with thousands who take materials home to their circles of influence!

Event page: https://www.facebook.com/events/345735466222426/

Learn more about GIAW at GenitalIntegrityAwarenessWeek.com


THANK YOU to the following individuals for supporting GIAW and the work of Saving Our Sons in 2019!

★ Christina H., Intact Virginia
★ Sean B.
★ Marc D.
★ Elizabeth M.
★ David Wilson, GIAW Founder


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Neonatal Foreskin Used In dōTERRA Research

A dōTERRA hosted study published in Biochimie Open highlights the company's willingness to use foreskin harvested from baby boys for the advancement of their products. 

The use of neonatal foreskin from United States' born babies in cosmetics, research, and with skin grafting, is commonplace today. However, it raises grave ethical concerns in the process. These are healthy human organs that are amputated and taken from non-consenting human beings when there is otherwise no medical justification for their removal. 

As a result of infant circumcision, and the sale/use of foreskin for studies like this one conducted by dōTERRA, countless men are forced to spend lives void of the full, intact genitals they were born with, and the functions this organ holds. The prepuce (foreskin) has many important purposes, both in infancy and adulthood, ranging from protection to pleasure. Its removal permanently alters the human body, and prevents normal functioning throughout life. 

By taking a stand against such practices and the harm of babies and future men, dōTERRA, of Pleasant Grove, Utah, would continue with their mission of "providing all families everywhere with health-promoting benefits..." It is ethically problematic when we sacrifice one "health promoting benefit" (the form and function of human foreskin) for another, and do so without the consent of the individual who is forever impacted. 

dōTERRA materials and methods, citing human neonatal fibroblasts (foreskin) as location for cell culture.

Circumcision is a billion dollar industry. This chart from The Intact Network highlights many of the ways that infant circumcision dominoes into other aspects of financial gain for those involved.


Han X., Beaumont C., Stevens N. Chemical composition analysis and in vitro biological activities of ten essential oils in human skin cells. Biochimie Open, Volume 5, 2017.

Abstract 
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Furthermore, we studied the impact of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles. LEO significantly modulated global gene expression and robustly impacted signaling pathways, many of which are critical for inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. This study provides the first evidence of the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO in human skin cells and indicates that it is a good therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory conditions of the skin.

1. Introduction
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil (LEO1) has been traditionally used as a remedy for a variety of health conditions. Recent scientific studies have provided evidence supporting its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties in several disease models [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Boukhatem et al. showed that topical application of LEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in mice [2]. Jiang et al. found that LEO protected against benzo-α-pyrene-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in human embryonic lung fibroblast cells [6]. A recent cytotoxicity study in human dermal fibroblasts by Adukwu et al. determined the IC50 to be 0.126% (v/v) for LEO and 0.095% (v/v) for citral, the primary component of LEO [5].

Given the popularity of topically applied LEO and the lack of bioactivity study in human skin cells, we undertook an investigation of the biological activity of a commercially available LEO in a validated human skin cell culture system. We first studied its impact on 17 protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. We also studied its effect on modulating human genome-wide gene expression profiles. The results showed that LEO significantly inhibited the production of many inflammatory biomarkers and robustly impacted global gene expression profiles in human skin cells.

2. Materials and methods 
All experiments were conducted using a BioMAP HDF3CGF system, which was designed to model the pathology of chronic inflammation in a robust and reproducible manner. The system comprises three components: a cell type, stimuli to create the disease environment, and a set of biomarker (protein) readouts to examine how the treatments affected the disease environment [7]. The methodologies used in this study were essentially the same as those previously described [8], [9], [10].

2.1. Cell culture

Primary human neonatal fibroblasts were prepared as previously described [11] and were plated under low serum conditions for 24 h before stimulation with a mixture of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-ϒ, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The cell culture and stimulation conditions for the HDF3CGF assays have been described in detail elsewhere [11].

2.2. Protein-based readouts

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the biomarker levels of cell-associated and cell membrane targets. Soluble factors in the supernatants were quantified using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence detection, bead-based multiplex immunoassay, or capture ELISA. The adverse effects of the test agents on cell proliferation and viability (cytotoxicity) were measured using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. For proliferation assays, the cells were cultured for 72 h before measurements, which is optimal for the HDF3CGF system. The detailed procedure has been described in a previous study [11]. Measurements were performed in triplicate, and a glossary of the biomarkers used in this study is provided in Supplementary Table S1.

Quantitative biomarker data are presented as the mean log10 relative expression level (compared to the respective mean vehicle control value) ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate measurements. Differences in biomarker levels between LEO- and vehicle-treated cultures were tested for significance using the unpaired Student's t test. A p-value < 0.05, outside of the significance envelope, with an effect size of at least 10% (>0.05 log10 ratio units), was regarded as statistically significant.

2.3. RNA isolation

Total RNA was isolated from cell lysates using the Zymo Quick-RNA MiniPrep kit (Zymo Research Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. RNA concentration was determined using a NanoDrop ND-2000 system (Thermo Fisher Scientific). RNA quality was assessed using a Bioanalyzer 2100 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and an Agilent RNA 6000 Nano kit. All samples had an A260/A280 ratio between 1.9 and 2.1 and a RNA Integrity Number score >8.0.

2.4. Microarray analysis for genome-wide gene expression

A 0.0012% (v/v) concentration of LEO was tested for its effect on the expression of 21,224 genes in the HDF3CGF system after a 24 h treatment. Samples for microarray analysis were processed by Asuragen, Inc. (Austin, TX, USA) according to the company's standard operating procedures. Biotin-labeled cRNA was prepared from 200 ng of total RNA using an Illumina TotalPrep RNA Amplification kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and one round of amplification. The cRNA yields were quantified using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and the distribution of the transcript sizes was assessed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100. Labeled cRNA (750 ng) was used to probe Illumina human HT-12 v4 expression bead chips (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Hybridization, washing, staining with streptavidin-conjugated cyanine-3, and scanning of the Illumina arrays were carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. The Illumina BeadScan software was used to produce data files for each array; raw data were extracted using Illumina BeadStudio software.

The raw data were uploaded into R [12] and analyzed for quality-control metrics using the beadarray package [13]. The data were normalized using quantile normalization [14], and then re-annotated and filtered to remove probes that were non-specific or mapped to intronic or intragenic regions [15]. The remaining probe sets comprised the dataset for the remainder of the analysis. The fold-change expression for each set was calculated as the log2 ratio of LEO to the vehicle control. These fold-change values were uploaded onto the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis web software (IPA, QIAGEN, Redwood City, CA, USA, www.qiagen.com/ingenuity) to generate the networks and pathway analyses.

2.5. Reagents

LEO (dōTERRA International LLC, Pleasant Grove, UT, USA) was diluted in DMSO to 8× of the final concentrations (final DMSO concentration in culture media was no more than 0.1% [v/v]); 25 μL of each 8× solution was added to the cell culture to a final volume of 200 μL. DMSO (0.1% [v/v]) served as the vehicle control. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of LEO indicated that its major chemical constituents (i.e., >5%) were geranial (also known as citral A) (43%), neral (also known as citral B) (32%), and geraniol (6%).

3. Results and discussion 
3.1. Bioactivity profile of LEO in the HDF3CGF system

We analyzed LEO's activity in the validated dermal fibroblast system, HDF3CGF, which features the microenvironment of inflamed human skin cells. Four different concentrations (0.011%, 0.0037%, 0.0012%, and 0.00041%, v/v) of LEO were initially tested for cytotoxicity. LEO was cytotoxic to the cells at concentrations of 0.011% and 0.0037%. Therefore, a concentration of 0.0012% was included for further analysis. Biomarkers with significantly different expression (p < 0.05) compared to that of vehicle controls, with an effect size of at least 10% (>0.05 log ratio units) (Fig. 1), were considered important. The details are discussed below.

Fig. 1. Bioactivity profile of lemongrass essential oil (LEO, 0.0012% v/v) on the human dermal fibroblast culture system HDF3CGF. X-axis denotes protein-based biomarker readouts. Y-axis denotes relative expression levels of biomarkers compared to vehicle control values. Vehicle control values are shaded gray, with 95% confidence levels. A * indicates key biomarkers, whose expression was significantly different (p < 0.05) from vehicle controls at the studied concentration, with an effect size of at least 10% (more than 0.05 log ratio units). MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; ICAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1; IP-10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10; I-TAC, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant; IL-8, interleukin-8; MIG, monokine induced by gamma interferon; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase 1; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase.

LEO showed significant inhibition of 11 of the 17 studied protein biomarkers. LEO exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in dermal fibroblast cells. LEO significantly decreased production of several inflammatory biomarkers, including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG). Tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) were also significantly inhibited by LEO. LEO also significantly inhibited the production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), an immunomodulatory biomarker.

LEO typically has very high amount of citral (geranial and neral). The anti-inflammatory property of LEO has been largely attributed to the activity of citral. Boukhatem et al. found that both topical and oral administration of LEO significantly inhibited chemically induced skin inflammation in a mouse model [2]. Another group also showed that LEO elicited significant anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse edema model [16]. Both of these reports investigated LEO with a chemical composition similar to that of the LEO used in the present study. Amorim et al. evaluated the anti-inflammatory property of four citrus essential oils, and found that Cymbopogon aurantifolia essential oil, largely due to high levels of citral, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model [3]. An animal study of citral showed that it significantly inhibited oxidative stress, apoptosis, and macrophage and nuclear factor-kB activation, demonstrating beneficial action through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [17]. Song et al. recently found that citral significantly inhibited enhanced production of TNF-α, IL-8, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells [18]. Consistent with these existing studies, the current finding of the inhibitory effect of LEO on inflammatory biomarkers indicates that it may possess anti-inflammatory properties and modulate the tissue remodeling process in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast cells. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO, along with its anti-proliferative effect in human skin cells, might promote enhanced wound healing, presumably via acceleration of proper tissue remodeling processes [19].

3.2. Effects of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles in the HDF3CGF system

To further explore the biological activities of LEO, we studied the effect of 0.0012% LEO (the highest non-cytotoxic concentration) on the RNA expression of 21,224 genes in the HDF3CGF system. The results showed robust and diverse effects of LEO on human gene regulation. Among the 200 most impacted genes (log2 [expression fold-change ratio relative to vehicle control] ≥ |1.5|), the majority (135 out of 200 genes) were significantly inhibited (Table S2). A cross-comparison of protein and gene expression data revealed that VCAM-1 was among those most inhibited by LEO at both protein and gene levels. See Supplementary Material for more information.

Further IPA studies showed that the bioactivity of LEO significantly overlapped with many canonical signaling pathways from the literature-validated database (Fig. 2). It is noteworthy that many of the most impacted pathways are closely related to processes of inflammation and tissue remodeling in human cells (Fig. 2, Tables S3–S6). LEO showed an overall inhibitory effect on these critical genes and signaling pathways, consistent with its anti-inflammatory activity in human skin cells.


Fig. 2. Top 20 canonical pathways representing the effect of lemongrass essential oil (LEO, 0.0012% v/v) on gene expression in the HDF3CGF system, generated via IPA. The p-value is calculated with the right-tailed Fisher's Exact Test. The p-value measures how likely the observed association between a specific pathway and the dataset would be if it was only due to random chance. The smaller the p-value (the bigger the −ln (p-value), indicated by black bars) of a pathway, the more significantly it matches with the bioactivity of LEO. A ratio, indicated by the gray bar, is calculated by taking the number of genes from the LEO dataset that participate in a canonical pathway, and dividing it by the total number of genes in that pathway. OX40, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4; Nur77, nuclear hormone receptor 77; LXR, liver X receptor; RXR, retinoid X receptor; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.

The current study has several limitations. Though the skin cell culture was designed to model the disease biology of chronic inflammation, the in vitro study results cannot be directly translated to the more complex human system. The impact of LEO on gene expression was analyzed after short-term intervention. How LEO impacts global gene expression over a longer term remains elusive. Nevertheless, based on the protein and gene expression data, this study provides important evidence of the biological effect of LEO on human skin cells and will likely stimulate further research into LEO's mechanisms of action.

4. Conclusions 
To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO, which has citral as its main component, on pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. LEO showed significant inhibition of VCAM-1, IP-10, I-TAC, and MIG production. It also significantly decreased collagen-I and III, EGFR, M-CSF, and PAI-1. Genome-wide gene expression analysis demonstrated robust and diverse effects of LEO. Many of the most impacted genes and pathways are critically involved in inflammation processes, supporting the anti-inflammatory property of LEO. LEO is likely to be a good therapeutic candidate for treating skin inflammation.

References
Please find references at the in full text pdf of this study.



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Breastfeeding and Circumcision Resources


Keep calm. Latch on. And keep him INTACT.

August 1-7 is World Breastfeeding Week and is the perfect opportunity for outreach with mothers who wish to nurse their babies to be born this year. Being honest, and fully disclosing the hazards that genital cutting often poses for a breastfeeding relationship is key to parents making informed decisions for the sake of their son. Here we highlight a variety of resources that relate to the intersecting topics, as well as showcase some images that have been used during past years for awareness-raising.

Happy World Breastfeeding Week! And thank you for saving our sons. ❤

• Breastfeeding and Circumcision: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/11/breastfeeding-circumcision.html

• La Leche League: The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding on Circumcision: http://www.DrMomma.org/2012/06/womanly-art-of-breastfeeding.html

• The Effects of Circumcision on Breastfeeding: http://ww.DrMomma.org/2009/12/effects-of-circumcision-on.html

• Natural Mother Magazine publication: Circumcision Harms Breastfeeding (p. 103-107): https://issuu.com/naturalmothermagazine/docs/march_april_2015_issue


• Circumcision Increases Breastfeeding Complications: http://www.DrMomma.org/2009/11/circumcision-leads-to-breastfeeding.html

• Breastfeeding / Circumcision Info Cards to share: https://www.etsy.com/listing/496041345/breastfeeding-circumcision-info-cards?ref=shop_home_active_4

• Circumcision and Breastfeeding [Circumstitions] Circumstitions.com/Nursing.html

• Circumcision, Breastfeeding and Bonding [CIRP] Cirp.org/library/birth

• Circumcision / Breastfeeding advocacy shirts: http://madebymomma.spreadshirt.com/breastfeeding-C46979/p2

• Breastfeeding Group (with pro-intact foundation): FB.com/groups/Breastfed





There's nothing quite so yummy as warm milk from my mummy.

A successful breastfeeding relationship best begins when a newborn feels secure, comforted, and close to his mother.



Breastfeeding awareness and advocacy t-shirts and onesies without mark-up at Made By Momma: MadeByMomma.spreadshirt.com/breastfeeding-C46979



Breastfeeding delivers the protection against urinary tract infection (UTI) that has been touted as a faulty 'benefit' of circumcision. Breastfeeding prevents UTIs - circumcision does not!


In my womb, I carried you.
With my breast, I fed you.
And with every fiber of my being,
I will protect you.


Breastfeeding is the biological norm.
So is intact foreskin!


Success at the breast starts with a peaceful beginning. 
Keep him safe and intact.


A baby belongs on a breast, and in a bed, NOT on a board.
Practice peaceful parenting - say NO to circumcision.


Breastfeeding provides him with everything he needs - nutrients, closeness, and protection against diseases and infections, including UTIs. The stress of circumcision can jeopardize your breastfeeding relationship and rob him of all these things. Reconsider, and learn more: IntactBaby.org/research


The trauma of circumcision can negatively impact his ability to breastfeed. Are you willing to sacrifice your breastfeeding relationship for an unnecessary (and harmful) surgery?


A newborn baby only has three needs: warmth, milk, comfort. Breastfeeding supplies all three. Circumcision can hinder each.


Skin to skin. Heart to heart. Only gentleness, from the start.


Breastfeeding is universally recommended by all medical and health organizations.
Routine infant circumcision is not recommended by any national health organization in the world.


"An innocent human being was solely dependent on me!" - Tichina Arnold
Breastfeeding and genital autonomy go hand-in-hand.


Breastfeeding for all. Circumcision for none.


"What I have been told is it's important to have that bonding latch right away." -Alicia Silverstone who is also pro-intact in her stance on the gentle care and raising of babies.


"While breastfeeding may not seem to be the right choice for every parent, it is the best choice for every baby." -Amy Sprangler  Being kept intact is also best for EVERY baby!


World Breastfeeding Week: Aug 1-7
ALL pediatric organizations in the world recommend breastfeeding.
NO pediatric health organization in the world recommends infant circumcision.

International Breastfeeding Symbol (copyright free):

International Genital Autonomy Symbol (copyright free): 
GenitalAutonomySymbol.org

Breastfeeding Mom's pack with intact materials available to send (directly or anonymously) at Etsy
See Etsy item description for updates on what is included in this Breastfeeding / Intact info pack.


Retired links from years past:

The Big Breastfeeding Coverup: Circumcision Censorship: http://lifesasaladbar.blogspot.com/2011/06/big-breastfeeding-cover-up-circumcision.html 


LLLI Breastfeeding / Circumcision Information Petition http://www.petitiononline.com/170211FM/petition.html

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